What is a Bio Toilet?

Bio Toilet is a technology developed and approved by DRDO – Ministry of Defence which offers an innovative technology for disposal of human waste in an eco friendly manner. This technology is very much suitable for any area and application in India.
The process under this technology culminates in to treated effluent which is free from Pathogens and is also environmentally acceptable.
The technology has major two components:
 a) Low Temperature active inoculums 
 b) Temperature controlled Bio digester

Main constituents of a Bio Toilet?

The main constituents of Bio -Toilet are:

  • Anaerobic Bacteria.
  • Trap Matt.
  • Pre fabricated above the ground shelter.
  • Bio digester tank which is a cylindrical structure with the provision of inlet for the human waste and the outlet for the Bio gas.

Different types of Bio Toilets?

The types of Bio toilet are:
A) Stationary Toilet (ST – Series): Constitutes of;
1. Non Temp Controlled – For the plane areas
The Standard readymade options are available in Single Pan, 2 Pan and 4 Pan.
2. Temp Controlled –For  Hilly  and cold  regions
It is Solar Powered with the standard readymade options available in Single Pan, 2 Pan and 4 Pan


B) Independently mounted Mobile Toilets (IMMT- Series): Mainly used in;
a) Moving Railway coaches, Long distance Buses, Big Cities, Mines, Remote areas, Beaches, Rural areas, Ships, Boats etc etc
C. Trailer Mounted Mobile Toilet Clusters (TMMTC – Series): Constitutes of;
a) Cluster of Toilet cabins (4- 16 cabins) as per the requirement of the customer.
b) It is mounted: like on the Tractor trailer, Jeep trailer, Truck etc. So that the trailer can be taken to the place where ever it is required.

D) Bio Digester Tanks:

a) Bio-Digester tanks are available in various capacities as required by the customers, with the bacteria for the

 Decomposition and the Standard options available are from 500 -10000 litres.

What is Anaerobic Digestion?

A Consortium of anaerobic (In absence of Oxygen) bacteria is been formulated and adopted to work at temp as low as 5 degree C and this is the component which acts as inoculums (seed material) to the bio digester and which converts the organic waste into methane and carbon-dioxide.

The anaerobic process inactivates the pathogens responsible for spreading of water borne diseases like Typhoid, Cholera, Shigellosis, Amoebic Dysenteries, and Diarrhoea etc.

The Bio digester serves as reaction vessel for bio methaneation and provides the anaerobic conditions and required temp for the bacteria. The optimum temp is maintained by microbial heat, insulation of the reactor and solar heating.

How much time does it take for the matter to digest in Bio Toilet?

The time taken for the matter to digest in the Bio toilet takes a period of 72 hours (3 Days) and the entire process is stated as below:

* The main function in the Bio Toilet is of the Bio digester tank which is a cylindrical structure with the provision of inlet for the human waste and the out let for Bio gas.

Temp in the bio digester is maintained in between 5 – 30 degree C. 

The Night soil degradation occurs through microbial reaction which converts it into bio gas.

The smell of night soil and the disease causing organisms present in the night soil & solid matter are eliminated totally.

On dry weight basis 90% of the solid waste is reduced and the gaseous effluent (bio-gas) is continuously let off to the atmosphere and the same can be used for various energy activities like cooking, water & room heating. Liquid effluent can be drained to any surface or soak pit without any environmental hazards.

How much (what %age) Bacteria / Inoculums is filled in Bio tank?

The bacteria / inoculums is filled in 30% of the total capacity of the Bio tank as per the accessed requirement at the sited location.


What it saves / conserves?

  • Water
  • Energy
  • Space
  • Environment
  • Money
  • Time
  • Promotes Hygiene & Ensures Good
  • Health


  1. What are the Do’s & Don’ts?


  • After using the toilet the person should clean his/her body with not more than 1 liter (Two Mugs) of water.
  • Keep the toilet clean.
  • To check the proper functioning of bio-digester, close the out let valve for 24 hours, open it then, take the burning match stick close to the out let valve, the gas will burn and this indicates that the bio digester is functioning.



  • Do not throw:
  1. Kerosene
  2. Soap
  3. Plastics
  4. Bottle
  5. Tin Cans
  6. Antiseptics inside the toilet seat.
  • Do not let the Gas Out let valve close.


The Present User’s / Approvers of Bio Toilets?

  • Indian Army (more than 200 toilets have been installed in last 5 years in Leh, Laddakh, Sikkim, Siachin regions).
  • MES
  • DDA & MCD.
  • CWG
  • Uttrakhand Govt., Orissa Govt. etc
  • Railways for their coaches.
  • LDA – Nanital – Uttaranchal
  • Parmarth Niketan
  • Haryana Tourism
  • NHPC Chamba
  • Maha Kumbh Mela (UP Jal Nigam)

Soon to be used by?

  • BRO
  • MES


Few of the executed Installations